Author: Akshita Sharma


“Adoption is the basis of a parent-child relationship by a lawful and social process apart from the birth procedure. It is a procedure by which a child of one positioning of guardians turns into the child of another positioning of guardians or parent. Indian adoption approaches are engraved, by quite a long while of continual attempts by social change lobbyists and child well-being associations. This is understandable from the laws and approaches put forward by the Government of India. A later policy in the Section IV of the Juvenile Justice Act 2000 implements the idea of mainstream adoption whereby, with no source to the network or religious effect of the guardians or the child concerned, a benefit seems, by all accounts, to be acknowledged to all subjects to embrace, and all children to be included. (Friesendorf; Stoll) While this was an affirmative change, this idea did not give the lawful and true blue status to the child identical to that of a natural, sincere to goodness child. Afterward, the Juvenile Equity (Care and Protection of Children Act 2006) cleared the matter, where the adoption was distinguished as the process through which the approved child is for all time isolated from the living guardians and turns into the real child of the new parents with all the rights, liabilities and duties that are attached to the relationship. This affirmation presented the enunciation child needing deliberation and security. Through this paper, our motivation is to courtship the past, show, and the eventual destiny of adoption in India. For that, one should first get it more about the confirmable point of view of Indian adoption.”(Friesendorf; Stoll; Biswas- Diener)


Have the changes in adoption plans and legal recommendations affect adoption of children in India?


  1. To study midway of policies and legal guidelines and its effect on adoption.
  2. To analyse the adoption framework in South India.
  3. To study present challenges and future tendency of domestic adoption.


Adoption in India is on an escalating.


In the book, “Adoption in India: Policies & Experiences by Vinita Bhargava, it analysis child adoption in India and challenges widespread in theories of adoption. In the book, “Sociology of Adoption” by Elfreeda Momin, it expresses that Cultural Norms and custom related to adoption differ from society to society. The book, “Child Rights in India Challenges and Social Action” by Geeta Chopra, is a diverse compendium on child rights in India from a child development view. Ashok A. Desai, J, in the book, “Fundamental Right to Adopt” said that the right to have size of a family as per to one’s own selection is understand within the idea of human dignity.


The research paper uses the expressive method of study the secondary sources are given more significance in this paper. The secondary sources of information used are the articles of research journals working papers theories and books of famous sociologist and e-sources are mentioned.


In India, adoption has been carrying out for thousands of years. Hinduism being the crucial religion practiced in India, saga and history has records of saint’s and royals who were adopted and who did adopt. Ramayana and Mahabharata is the two such great saga of Hinduism which bear sources to adoption. Historically, where an absence of male offspring happened, couples went in for adopt a male child to allocate him as legal beneficiary. According to Hindu convention, children are crucial and a dead parent’s spirit can just achieve paradise on the off chance that individual has a child to light the remembrance service fire, and preservation can be accomplished through children who offer internal love. To see more, a short portrayal on adoption practices of two old civic formulations in the historical backdrop of humankind is thought about in the following area to discover the motive behind adoption. (Bhargava)

As per Manu, “An adopted son shall not at all take the family name and property of his natural father, the burial ceremony goes after the family name and the property the burial sacrifice of him who gives the son in adoption quit as far as that son is worried.”


The English law begin identifying adoption in the 19th century but legal adoption came into existent in 1956 the objective of this adoption act was to stop the biological parents from asserting back their children. English law of adoption is very close to Hindu law of adoption as it also lies down that the adopted child, for all intention and motive becomes like natural born child.[1] English law of adoption is very close to the Hindu Law of Adoption insofar as that it puts down that the adopted child, for all the intention and motive, becomes like an organic child and the child’s binds with his natural family are received. It also recollects the intercountry adoption and approved by the International convention on adoption.


Modern laws of adoption came into continuance after the First World War. Many kids were deserted by their parents others were detached from their biological families and some were disadvantaged due to the war events. The first Adoption law was institute by England and Wales called as (Adoption of children Act 1926) this law needed the consent of both the biological parents and that of the adoptive parents. However the Act identified that adopted children advantaged from the same rights, duties, and obligations as a birth child, it did not secure the child’s full combining into the adoptive family, nor were inheritance rights substitute in the birth family. A large number of countries approved new adoption laws. Many amendments were made to prior legislations during 1940 to1980. A number of countries also altered existing legislation on adoptions to permit for new form of adoption.[2]


Children who became orphaned due to desertion, poverty and wars created a reason for the authorities to look into their welfare. Initially, such children were spontaneously included into their families by the next relatives, from either side of the family. This alteration of the children’s well-being created a track way to Indians adopting separate children during the 1920’s. Because there was no consciousness about documentation, the number of separate children being adopted during this time is not accessible.[3]


Adoption policies and social alteration could have developed because of the manner that India among those circumstances was led by the British. The primary Children’s Act was established in the Madras and Bombay Presidencies 1920, giving indicates the duty to care for downhearted and ignored children. The fundamental motivation behind drafting this act was to give care and confidence to children. Also changes that went with Independent India from 1947 attain changes in the social act and arrangements. These developments in addition positively affected family arrangements regarding children’s wealth.


The frame of mind towards adoption in India has transformed altogether in two decades. Approaching new parents are starting to understand the legitimate and social procedures of adoption and recognize the need to experience classify child welfare associations. It is fascinating to take note of that over the most current couple of years, children coming into organizations, either in the type of renounce or capitulate has diminished extensively. This is caused by Family Organizing and managing Medical Termination of Pregnancy. Order, globalization and concurrent musings have realized attitudinal changes are a more comprehensive point of view.  In rural parts of Tamil Nadu at least, the girl child persists a casualty. Interestingly, adequate, the data of ICCW show that between 2001 to 2009, of all domestic adopted children, of which 78% were female children and 22% are male children. This clearly shows that the female children are still being forsaken or capitulate more often than the male children. Destined parents with higher education and a high financial status are self-confident to adopt girl child and they do not consider a girl child to be a financial burden. On the opposite, the researcher observe that some families in definite region with greater financial status still believe raising a girl child as a burden as they do not want to waste money on her marriage, and do not want to deal with teenage love attraction. The traditional belief still exists in certain regions that a male children could be an investment.


Inter-country adoption has attach a new social feature to the institution of adoption more and more people from distinct countries have begun adopting child from emerging countries like India but these adoptions are not free from misapply. The existing Indian law for adoption is unspoken in this regard. The clause of guardians and wards act 1890 are applied in the conditions of inter-country adoption. The foreigner who wants to adopt a child have to apply to court for the guardianship of the child. Non-appearance of a uniform law in India and caste preconception made inter-country adoption more admired than domestic adoption.[4]


The Hague convention of 1993 express that the child, for the full and friendly development of his or her character should grow up in a family environment. India signed this Hague convention on inter -country adoption in 2003 and approved the same with a perspective to strength international cooperation and safety of Indian children placed in inter-country adoption. To reorganize the process of inter-country adoption, the (center adoption resource agency) was established in India in 1986. The part of CARA is to notice and managed the adoption process which leads to a connection of placement agencies (Adoption coordinating Agency) which provide enough opportunity to every child to discover home within India.


However state recommended agencies are providing adoption, the reality is that private adoptions are quite taking place in some hospitals by means of agents and unorganized sectors.

  • Mostly, adoption agencies are discerned to be “money makers” and so they are continuously put under “scanner” by the informant.
  • There is an absence of constant entire data in some states which makes it hard to conduct research studies.
  • If and when there is an allowance downturn, many of the agencies who are usually responsible for gathering data may find it hard to continue their work.
  • As against to the Western nations, Indian culture does not permit “open adoption”. As India takes after “shut adoption”, categorization about the birth parents is not revealed. Begin from today; it is observed both in country and a little family in urban regions, new parents are in addition not open to inform their children regarding the adoption status. If a child gathers this data from others, the faith could turn into a significant issue in parent child relationship.[5]
  • Single parent adoptions are lawful; so far there is no study or proof of any growth in single parents who have adopted children. There are no facts available on the success rate of the single parent adoption.
  • Clinical knowledge of the writer is that over liberality and over protection are two marvel that are normal in approving child rearing. In spite of everything they think about that, these children who have landed because of distinctive conditions needed extraordinary techniques for taking care of which may be not the same as living child lifting practices.


According to CARA (central adoption resource authority) the In-country adoption numeral has come downwards from 5693 in 2010 to 3011 in 2015-16. The Inter-country adoption has not converted much between 2010 and 2015-16. Additional female children have been adopted differentiate to the male children in the past 3 years. Although 4475 male children have been adopted between 2013-14 and 2015-16, 6448 female children have been adopted in the identical period. The age-group adoption record is being upheld by CARA only from August 2015. Between August 2015 and March 2016, a total of 2160 children were adopted among which 1561 were falls in the 0-2 age group. This is 72% of all the adopted children. 94% of the adopted children were less than the age of 6 years and only 6% of the adopted children were over the age of 6 years. In all the dissimilar age groups, many female children are adopted than male children. More than 7700 PAPs were listed with CARA. More than 2700 opted for only girl children while more than 2800 choose only for a male child. More than 2100 choose for either a girl or a male child. But, the number of children obtainable for adoption is only a small over 1600. Out of the 1600 children obtainable for adoption, 770 are common children while the remaining are those with special requirements. Although 1400 Children Homes (Government & NGO) and Specialized Adoption Agencies (SAAs) are performing in the country according to the government data, the number of obtainable children is lower than 1/4th the demand.


Family courts should proceed towards ‘child well throws away’ arrangements to complete the adoption process and abstain from time slip by. The judicial institution should give regular preparing to the District Court Judges on exquisite treatment on adoption cases. NGOs and child well-being Agencies need to give essential direction to give up children with unusual needs. As same sex couples adoption is select up force, shortly arrangements should be set up. Begin at now; Indian Government legitimates same sex marriage in few states. With enlarged attention to mental consequence in the adoption procedure, we may think that preparation and direction for adoption leading ability will be an area that will raise notably more consideration in the succeeding decade. (Thukral and Ali)


Central Adoption Resource Authority (CARA) has emanated separate plan guidelines for in-country and inter-country adoptions. The chief policy adopted is positioning policies included in adoption should harshly follow and obey with the directions of Central Adoption Resource Authority (CARA) and listing with respective state governments. NOC (No Objection Certificate) from Central Adoption Resource Authority (CARA) is made obligatory in case of all inter-country adoption, before positioning agency process the appeal in capable Judicial Courts.


In India, an Indian, NRI (Non Resident Indian) or a foreign citizen may adopt a child. There are particular guidelines and documentation for each category of expected adoptive parents. A single female or a married couple can adopt a child. In India, a single male is generally not entitled to be an adoptive parent.

Necessary conditions to be satisfied by an adoptive parent are as follows:

  • An adoptive parent should be medically fit and economically able to care for a child.
  • A person prepared to adopt a child must reach the age of 21 years.
  • While there is no legal higher age limit for parents but most adoptive organization has their higher age limit. If you want to adopt a child who is less than a year old, the highest combined age of you and your spouse should be not more than 90 and none of you must be elder than 45 years. The age of adoption is relaxed determined on the age of the child. Children as elder as 12 years are given for adoption; the higher age limit of adoptive parent is generally 55 years.[6]


In India all adoptions matters are handled by the CARA (Central Adoption Resource Authority), a self-governing body governed by the Ministry of Women & Child Development.

  • A minimal age difference of 21 years between the single mother and the adopted child is needed if they are of opposite sexes.
  • A single parent should be in between 30 to 45 years in age if she desires to adopt a child in the age group of 0 to 3 years. The higher limit for a child elder than 3 years is 50.
  • The single parent should have an extra family support.[7]


The new regulation simplifies the whole process of adoption and brings in greater translucency and clearness in the process. The following is widely the process accompanied.

  • Parents listing online on (Child Adoption Resource Information and Guidance System) CARINGS and choose the preferred Adoption institution for Home Study Report (HSR) and State.
  • Essential documents have to be transmitting within 30 days of the registration.
  • SAA (Specialized Adoption Agency) and performs HSR of the Prospective Adoptive Parent (PAP) and uploads it on Child Adoption Resource Information and Guidance System within 30 days from date of presentation of essential documents on CARINGS.
  • Appropriateness of Prospective Adoptive Parents is resolved (if not found appropriate, PAPs were notify with grounds for rejection)
  • Prospective Adoptive Parent secure one child, as per their liking from up to 6 children.
  • Prospective Adoptive Parent looks up the adoption institution within 15 days from the date of securing and decided.
  • If the child is not decided within specified time, the Prospective Adoptive Parent comes down in the ranking list.
  • On receiving of the child by the Prospective Adoptive Parent, Specialized Adoption Agency finished the referral and the adoption process.
  • Prospective Adoptive Parent gets the child in pre-adoption foster care and Specialized Adoption Agency files the petition in the court and the adoption court decision is issued.
  • Post-adoption continuation report is managed for a period of 2 years.[8]


Hindus are permit to lawfully adopt a child. Other societies could only behave as a legal guardian of the children. Under Shastric Hindu law, two important object of adoption are as follows:

  • This object is religious i.e., to acquire a son who will take part in the burial ceremonies of the father.
  • This object is non-religious i.e., to bring out families name.

It was of the opinion that a person who died without leaving a son behind would go to hell. Thus, this was a reason to acquire a son.

Under the Shastric Hindu Law only a male child can be acquired and has to be from the identical caste as his adoptive parents. In India, now many changes to the law concerning adoption have been made under the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act 1956. The most crucial changes that this act conduct are that it decrease the object of adoption to secular only and also gave women same rights to a man i.e., now, under this act both boys and girls may be adopted. The problem of having identical caste has also been eliminated by this act.

Before to this Act only a male could be adopted, but the Act makes a clause that a female may also be adopted. This Act expands to the entire India excluding the State of Jammu and Kashmir.


In Muslim Law adoption is not identified. Muslims have no adoption law and consequently have to approach a court under Guardianship and Wards Act 1890. When a Muslim adopts a child under this act, it is believed to taken under foster care under the act. Prior to Shariat Act 1937 adoption amid Muslim was identify by custom. So a Muslim, never accept somebody else child as his own and the child is examined to be the straight descendant by legal means. If an adoption takes place, then an adopted child keeps his or her own organic family name and does not alter his or her name to equivalent that of the adoptive family.  Under the Oudh Act 1869, Section 29 a Muslim talukadar was allowed to adopt.


  • There has been an enormous development of policies and legal regulations in the globe of adoption.
  • The government has been actually fast and effectual in providing help for the adoption process and the government had furnished many adoption policies.
  • The expansion and policies and legal regulation had a great effect on adoption and it brought out numerous problems of adoption and at the same time provided the answer to those problems too.


Adoption in expression of living in society may be the most booming way. The possibility for a child discovering a family is something to have the bravery to hope for adoption institutions are now operating as organized sectors nearly observed by the state and central government domestic adoption has obtain its movement once the government of India got indulge in observing and controlling inter-country adoption laws. The psychological effects of adoption are demanding in every feature, but dealing with social workers and guiding will help families to raise their future.

This inquiry gives data on adoption as an expansion of family in South India. Adoption offices are currently working as resolved parts attentively observed by the state and the local government. Residential adoption has selected its force once the legislature of India got occupied with noticing and handling between nation adoption laws. Usually number of children being abandoned or surrendered has importantly decreased due to legitimate invigorating end of pregnancy managed by the Family Planning of India, and the transform of the Indian economy. Adoption is a sole decision; new parents need help with inquiries in regards to child rearing, families, handling network and school.

Post adoption recommend as aftercare is as of now reachable though is provided to the guardians just on ask. It is recommended that post adoption instruction is ordered to help and advice guardians with the transform in their parts and converting to parenthood. Another crucial division is that the emotional well-being system should be improved about adoption process and the mental effect of couple who are childless and who undergo adoption. In light of the current pattern, it might be deduced that there will come a need in future to current adoption treatment ready.