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Author – Sanighdha (University Institute of Legal Studies, Panjab University)

“The  main  political  problem  is  how  to  prevent  police  power  from  becoming  tyrannical. This is the meaning of all the struggles for liberty.” Ludwig Von Misses


Martin Luther King Jr. once famously remarked, “Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.”

Criminal  justice  administration  is  the  term  attributed  to  the  mechanism  which  seeks  to  provide  justice  to  those  who  have  committed  crimes. Apparently,  it’s  an  umbrella  term  which  also  includes  preventing  crimes  in  the  society, addressing  grievances  of  the  people  in  matters  of  crime  and  punishing  the  wrong  doers  for  their  acts. Criminal  justice  holds  great  importance  for  democratic  nations  as  in  such  nations, it  seeks  not  only   to  hold  on  fast,  the  retributive  theory  of  punishment  but  also  balance  it  with   strings  of  reformatory  theory. In  such  circumstances,  it  becomes  necessary  to  balance  the  wrongs  and  the  punishment  given  for  the  same, alongwith  mandating  that  the  rights  of  the  people  are  not  trampled  upon. For  preserving  peace  and  order  in  the  society, it  is  inevitable  and  a  dire  necessity  to  keep  the  criminal  justice  administration  mechanism  in  place  and  more  than  ever, it  is  now,  in  unprecedented  times  of  COVID19 –an invisible  foe,  that India  needs  to  look  over  and  guard  jealously , the  cannons  which  uphold  the  democratic  values  of  our  country  and  the  tenets  of   justice  that  we  so  proudly  often  highlight.


Richard J. Daley  in  his  famous  quote  remarked, “The  Police  are  not  here  to  create disorder  but  to prevent  one.”

Police  is  an important  organ  of  the  executive  branch  of  the  government  which  has  been  given  the  authority  for  two  major  functions:  preventing  the  commission  of  crimes  and  maintaining  the  law  and  order  situation  in  the  respected  jurisdictional  area. The  police  and  its  numerous  powers  with  regard  to  the  aforementioned  are  mentioned  in   the  Code  of  Criminal  Procedure (CrPC) , 1973. There  are  also  some  constraints  on  the  use  of  power  by  the  police , which  are  mentioned  comprehensively  in  the  Constitution  under  Article  21  and  22  as  well  as  in  the  CrPC. These  are  not  prima  facie  restraints  but  tend  to  guide  the  police  in  the  course  of  using  its  powers  in  the  correct  manner. One  of  these  restraints  is  that  the  police  does  not  have  power  to  make  an  arrest  of  an  innocent  person. The  powers  of  the  arrest  of  the  police  and  the  persons  it  can  arrest  are  given  under  Sections  41-44  of  the CrPC. The  police  is  expected  to  follow  these  rules  and  regulations  so  as  the  most  cherished  right  of  the  individuals   i.e.  the right  to  life  and  personal  liberty  mentioned  under  Article  21  could  not  be  taken  away, except   according  to  the  procedure  established  by  law. In  India  and  elsewhere  as  well  for  that  matter,  the  police  is  not  known  much  for  its  “good  actions  in  law”  but  for  the  transgressions  of  power  that  it  so  willfully  and  frequently  commits. As  per  a  study (2020) conducted  by  the  National  Human  Rights  Commission  under  the  aegis  of  the Ministry  of  Home  Affairs, police  brutality  is  on  an  all  time  high  across  all  the  states  of  our  country. The  data  clearly  points  out  that  Kerala  is  worse than  Bihar, Chattisgarh, Jharkhand  and  Punjab  when  it  comes  to  police  brutality  on  people  under  custody. Also, the  number  of  police  custodial  deaths  have  seen  a  hundred  percent  rise  in  Kerala  in  2018-19  from  2017-18. Whereas  jurists  are  of  the  view  that  the  only  way  to  prevent  police  brutality  is  to  ensure  a fool  proof system   wherein  actions  of  police officers  shall  be  strictly  monitored  and  punished, the  higher  echelons  of  the  police  department  are  keeping  a  steady  silent  on  this  issue. In  such  a  situation,  the  police  is  left  unaccountable thus tantamounting  to  a  deadly  silence.


“The  language  of  law  must not  be  foreign  to  the  ears  of  those  who  are  to  obey  it.” -Billings Learned Hand

The  time  that  this  world  is  facing  right  now  is  an  unprecedented  one,  which  no  one  wished  and  no  one  imagined  for. The  present  time  had  been  largely  difficult  for  the  migrants  who  have  been  left  astray  on  the  streets  to  help  themselves on  their  own. Thrown  out  on  streets, left  out  of  the  mainstream, secluded  from  the  society   as  ever  before  and  forayed  into  a  realm  which  possesses  neither  assurance  of  jobs  and  employment  nor  caters  to  the  basic  needs  of  their  families; migrants  have  been  left  with  nothing  much  but  with  the  promises  of  the  government. While deciding  on  a  nationwide  lockdown, what  missed  the  thorough  eyes  of  the  government  was   the  exodus  of   migrants  that  was  to  take  place  once  the news  reached  them.

What  followed  the  “migrant  crisis” was  a  slew  of  contradictory  orders  that  forced  the  migrants  to  return  to  their  home  state  while  defying  all  the orders  issued  by  the  Magistrates  of  their  official working  state. The  steps  were  taken  by  the  Magistrates under  an  archaic Act, the  Epidemic  Diseases  Act 1897 (State  Government  can  take  action  under  this  Act)  and  the Disaster  Management  Act, 2005 (gives  power  to  the  Central  Government  to  take  action). Not  to  forget  that  Section  188  IPC  provided  the  worst  punishments  in  cases  of  defiance. It  is  no  trite  that  maximum  of  these  people  booked  were  poor  migrant  labourers, suddenly  thrown  out  on  dimly  lit, unsafe  and    unhygienic streets from  their  tin-shed  temporary  shelters   which  atleast  didn’t  make  them  an  ideal  ‘creature’ for  police  brutality.

Section  188  of  the  Indian  Penal  Code  punishes  violators  who  disobey  the  guidelines  of  a  public  servant. Mens rea or a guilty mind is not an essential requirement for commission of an offence under this section. What is required is knowledge of the order so contravene, and that such contravention may result in or is likely to result in actual harm. The  punishment  of  this  Section  is  directly  proportional  to  the  intensity  of  the  contravention  committed  by  the  person  concerned.

According  to  a  news  report (The Tribune , 10 May 2020) In  Uttar  Pradesh, 20000  FIRs  have  been  registered  and  60000  people  have  booked  for  violating  the  prohibitory  orders. Due  process  was  never  followed  during  such  unlawful  booking  of  people. There  is  no  provision  for  registration  of  FIR  under Section 188 IPC  and  the  same  has  been  emphasised  by  the  Courts time  and  again. However, a  complaint  can  be  made  by  such  public  servant  whose  orders  have  been  violated (C. Muniappan v State of Tamil Nadu-2010). A  person  unaware  of  law  is  naturally,  whether  intentionally or  unintentionally  going  to  break  it. Penalizing  someone  by  the State  for  its  own  shortcomings  doesn’t  really  suit  a  democracy. Unprecedented  times  do  not  warrant  for  usurping  the  law. In  Jeevanandham  &Ors. v State & Ors.(2018), the Madras  High  Court  has  ruled  in a case under S. 188, IPC the role of a police officer will be confined only to preventive action as stipulated under S. 41, CrPC and he cannot register an FIR, even though S. 188, IPC is a cognizable offence. According  to  a  recent  World  Bank  Report (“COVID19- Crisis Through A Migration Lens”), 40 million  internal  migrants  have  been  displaced  from  their places of  work  since  the  nationwide  lockdown  was  imposed. The  same  Report  also  quoted  that  50,000-60,000  have  moved  from  urban  to  the  rural  centres  of their  origin  within  a  span  of  few  days. The  people  who  have  been  arrested  under  the  orders  have  not  been  released  yet  and  the  criminal  justice  system  is  not  working  in  their  favour  because  too many  powers  have  been  given  to  the  police  and  other  authorities  leaving  them  less  accountable  than  ever  before  and  giving  them  much  freedom  than  given  before.


In  Prakash  Singh v Union  of  India( 2006 (8) SCC1 )  and  Vineet  Narain v Union  of  India (1998 (1) SCC 226) , the  Apex  Court  has  upheld  the  importance  of  accountability  and  transparency  in   police  forces. The  Court  also  mandated  the  prosecution  and  granting  of  severe  punishments  to  the  erring  police  officials.  But  most  of  the  guidelines  laid  down  by  the  Court in  this  regard  have  not  been  followed. These  guidelines  were  meant  to  be  a  roadmap  and  could  have  been  helpful  in  trying  times  like  these,  had  they  been  considered.  But  the  police  goes  on  to  use  its  powers  freely  without  any  control  and  the  innocent  get to  suffer, an  innocent  who  does  not  even  know  what  crime  has  he/she  committed. Does  the  principle of  Ignorentia Non Excusat Legem  come  into  play  here?  Or  does  it  not? Once  the  crisis  end,  the  police  will  be  made  to  give  answers  to  its misdoings.  The  Court  must  step  in  when  one  organ  of  the  government  is  not functioning  properly. A democracy  is meant  to  be  a  system  of  checks  and  balances  and  that  alone  ensures  a  healthy  and  participative  democracy; without  which- ruins  await  a  nation.

According  to  Blackstone,

 “It is better that ten guilty persons escape than that one innocent suffer.”

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