Author :- Prapti Derasari
Before looking or understanding about carbon credit, let us see some of the common problems that we are facing. Like are we living in safe environment? Are we taking proper care of ourselves? God has made this universe so wonderful. His creativity includes mountains, plants, trees, flowers, water, river, sea, sun, moon, stars, land and human beings, animals etc. In return of this, god wants that human beings should protect nature forever, so that our next generations can enjoy the same. But today, I feel so bad to say that our natural environment is becoming worst day by day. “Negligence” is the main reason which is playing an important role in destroying our environment. Other social, physical, emotional, are the various negative impacts which are affected by environment pollution. Pollution is increasing day by day and due to that we are facing different diseases too.
The problem of environment pollution will not be solved by an individual country. It is a big problem for our whole universe or world. For example oceans have also faced issues in warming and becoming more acidic, glaciers are melting and rising of sea level, are the effects which are creating challenges towards our environment and society.
Much More in Detail:
My another question comes here: What is environment? What includes in term environment? In our country, there are so many people which are still not aware about the term environment in detail. In past century, largest number of carbon dioxide has been used to release by human activities. And, however other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere and these gases comes from burning the fossil fuels to produce energy. But slowly the greenhouse gases buildup, the climate changes and result in dangerous effects to human health and eco system. Atmosphere has caused serious problems such as the green house effects from the growing emissions of carbon dioxide (Co2) and other gases like methane (CH4) and nitrogen dioxide (No2). Out of these, carbon dioxide is high in quantity gas that contributes the most global warming. And approximately its emissions represents 55% of total world emissions of greenhouse effect. This does not means that the effects or problems will be seen within one or two years, but it will affect in future. Hence, if carbon dioxide concentration continuous to grow, by the average earth temperature will rise from 1.5C to 5.9C by 2100 and it will give direct effect to storms, floods, hurricanes, droughts, changes in the variability of hydrologic events like C level rise, scarcity of portable water, changes in rain regimes, risk in agriculture, health, flow of sea into the rivers, threat toward biodiversity and wellbeing of human population.
From the various research and study observation, the results are quiet clear that the industrial countries are responsible for most of the greenhouse effect. However, the developing countries like China, India, and Brazil are the major emitting countries. Not only the industries but I will also blame towards our increasing population, due to that increasing in number of vehicles, and vehicles are playing positive role in increasing of emissions. Thus, the proper rules and laws should be implement for prevention.
What is Carbon Credit?
Carbon credit means a permit which allows a country or organization to produce a certain amount of carbon emission and which can be traded if the full allowance is not used. The credit limits the emissions to a mass equal to one ton of carbon dioxide. The concept of carbon credit is that incentivizing the industrial units which pollute less and de-incentivizing those that pollute more.
For example: if a company say ABC will have only eight units of greenhouse gases out of ten units allotted to it than ABC will have two units of emission as “credit outstanding” in its “pollution” account. On the other hand if a company say, XYZ emits 14 units instead of 12 units allotted to it, then XYZ will have 2 units of “debit balance” in its pollution account. In such cases ABC will be able to transfer its 2 credit “credit balance” to the 2 “debit balance” accounted to XYZ. So both the companies “pollution” account will be match with equal ratio and able to digest a certain scientifically fixed amount of pollutants.
Kyoto Protocol and its Impacts:
Before understanding the term Kyoto protocol we must have to understand about the functions of UNFCCC. UNFCCC is an international environmental treaty negotiated at UNC on environment and development in formally known as Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992. Here UNFCCC stand for United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The main object of this treaty was to stabilize greenhouse gases concentration in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. KP had unlimited progress in nations like China and India and other developed nations too. Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism are very important objects of KP. The protocol is also important for the reason that which had merrily recommended that governments willingly diminish their emit of greenhouse gases, thus the real and main intention was to take signature of the agreements both by developing as well as developed nations for the future development. The concept of joint implementation has been explained in Article 6 of KP, CDM in Article 12 of KP and international emission trade in Article 17 of KP, all three has their role in prevention of emissions.
As we, all are aware that every coin has its two sides. Thus in KP there was so many critics. But the main mission was to take one step ahead for prevention, towards stopping harmful emissions. The main aim of KP was to see member’s jointly decreasing discharge of greenhouse gases by 5.2% under the discharge stages of 1990 by 2012. Benefits of KP: open doors for alteration, conservation of mankind future, ensure existence of future generation, it is a global cooperative effect and reduction for the effect of carbon credit.
“The earth is what we all have in common” – Wendell Berry
National and International Legal Prospective:
National Legal Prospective: best example are phasing out of none-CNG buses (discussed in M.C. Mehta v. UOI & Ors, 31 January 2012), the clear idea of emission effect has been discussed in “Taj Tratezium Pollution”. Not only the cases but other well-known agreements are taken into existence like-
Indian Network for Climate Change Assessment (INCCA)
National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC)
- National Solar Mission
- National Water Mission
- National Mission on Sustainable Habitant
- National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency
- National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem
- National Mission for “Green India”
- National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture
- National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change
Climate Change Action Program (CCAP)
International Legal Prospective:
- Vienna Convention and Montreal Protocol
- The Bail Road Map
- Copenhagen Accord
- The Cancun Agreement
- The Durban Agreement
- The Doha Climate Gateway
- The Warsaw Outcomes
At last, I would end my article by requesting each and every one of us that laws are framed for our betterment, so make optimum use of burning fossil fuels and discard them in a proper manner, even by motivating use of CNG for vehicles, by imposing strict regulations on carbon emissions, educating people by using social media.
“Let us not take planet for granted.” – Leonardo DiCaprio